TABLE OF CONTENTS


Collection Summary

Biographical History

Scope and Contents of the Collection

Administrative Information

Restrictions

Subject and Genre Terms

Arrangement of the Collection

Detailed Description of the Collection

Series 1: Records of the Spanish Civil War

Series 2: The XVth International Brigade Records

Series 3: Sandor Voros Personal Papers

Adelphi Libraries

Sandor Voros Spanish Civil War Collection



Collection Summary

Repository: Adelphi University, Garden City, NY
Creator: Voros, Sandor
Title: Sandor Voros Spanish Civil War Collection
Inclusive Dates: 1936-1970 and undated
Bulk Dates: 1936-1939
Quantity: 3.17 Linear Feet
Abstract: Sandor Voros immigrated to the United States in 1921 from Hungary. After several years of suffering through social injustices as an immigrant, he gradually began to meet various communist sympathizers as well as communist leaders and sought to use his writing skills in an attempt to benefit those who felt mistreated. As a gifted linguist and writer, his popularity amongst the Communist Party grew immensely. In the fall of 1937, he volunteered to take part in the Spanish Civil War by joining the International Brigades in Spain. While the main reason for his being sent to Spain was to evaluate the current status of the brigades, he was quickly recognized by the people and the party as a leader. This enabled him to see the war from the front lines as well as the political inner workings. As a culmination of these observances, Voros quickly grew disillusioned by Communism and broke away from the party shortly after the war.

Biographical History

Sandor Voros was born July 1, 1900 in Hungary to a middle class Jewish family. He attended the Hungarian Infantry Officers School, graduating in 1918 ranked fourteenth in his class. He fought to uphold the constitutional authority of the Hapsburg Monarchy after the First World War and returned home to finish his studies in medicine. During this time, growing anti-Semitism encouraged his family to leave the country.

Voros settled in New York in 1921 having acquired work in a garment shop. His free time was spent at home and libraries reading and writing plays and short stories. His writings, including an autobiographical play about the Hungarian Revolution, often reflected his growing feelings of social injustices. These feelings were also fueled by anti-immigrant sentiments in America and the exploitation of his labor in the garment industry.

He soon became exposed to Communist leaders and ideologists after translating Emery Balint’s novel, Gamma. Voros soon became a member of the Communist Party and worked as editor and business manager of the Hungarian Communist Daily, Uj Elore. He moved with the publication to Ohio in 1931 and became head of the Ohio Bureau of the Daily Worker. It was there that Voros became increasingly popular in the Communist Party, actively seeking new members and preparing speeches.

During the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Voros volunteered his services to the Communist Party to fight in support of the Popular Front government. The offer to volunteer was denied by the Communist Party citing that the war was a fight between two capitalist factions and therefore no real concern to the Communist Party. A second request in the fall was also denied.

In January of 1937 Voros was approached by the Communist party to go to Spain as one of twelve leading comrades to investigate the mutiny of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade on its first day of action. Given his journalism and military background, Voros’ first assignment led him to be promoted to the Political Section, Historical Section and eventually Brigade Political Commissariat of the XVth International Brigade. Due to the multitude of skills Voros possessed, along with his advancement while in Spain he was afforded the opportunity to view the war from the front lines as well as internal politics.

Voros became disillusioned with the Communist party shortly after returning home late 1938. It was through the war and subsequent activities that Voros recognized that Communism at its current state had little in common with the classical Marxist doctrine. Voros went on to publish his autobiography, American Commissar, in 1961 and retired to California until his death in the early 1970’s.

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Scope and Contents of the Collection

The Sandor Voros Spanish Civil War collection contains materials directly related to, but not limited to, foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War. While comprised mostly of military orders, personal narratives and photographs pertaining to the war, the collection also offers insight into the life of Sandor Voros. Included are his personal writings, correspondence with his girlfriend, scholars and others, as well as materials related to his experiences as a Political Commissar. Also included are a collection of papers from Robert Gladnick, a fellow International Brigades man, dealing mostly with inquiries for publications and research requests. While the majority of the documents deal directly within the timeframe of the Spanish Civil War, there is a significant amount of material from before the Spanish Civil War and after (to about 1970).

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Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Preferred citation for this material is as follows:

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Sandor Voros Spanish Civil War Collection; Box and folder number; Adelphi University Archives and Special Collections, Garden City, NY.

Processing Information

This collection was reprocessed in 2012 by Nicholas Ferrelli under the supervision of Professor Jessica Wagner.

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Restrictions

Restrictions on Access

The Sandor Voros Spanish Civil War collection is open to research. Photocopies of fragile materials are provided for researchers in lieu of the originals.

Use Restrictions

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from Adelphi University Archives and Special Collections. Researchers are responsible for copyright compliance.

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Subject and Genre Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in Adelphi University Library's online catalog, ALICAT. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons, or places should search the catalog using these headings.

Persons:

Voros, Alexander (Sandor) 1900 -

Topics:

Spain—History—Civil War, 1936 - 1939
Spain—History—Civil War, 1936 - 1939—International Brigades
Spain—History—Civil War, 1936 - 1939—Participation, American
Spain—History—Civil War, 1939 - 1939—Participation, Foreign
Spain—Politics and Government—1936 - 1939

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Arrangement of the Collection

The Sandor Voros Spanish Civil War Collection is arranged into 3 series:

Series 1: Records of the Spanish Civil War
Series 2: Records of the XVth International Brigades
Series 3: Personal Papers

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Detailed Description of the Collection

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

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Series 1: Records of the Spanish Civil War
Contains records from the Spanish Civil War such as newspapers, journals, interviews, Soviet propaganda leaflets and stamps. Photographs of the XVth International Brigade, its members as well as the aftermath of battles are included.
Subseries A: Spanish Civil War Records
Contains records from the Spanish Civil War such as newspapers, journals and interviews.
Box Folder
1 1 Interview with Markovic (Commander of the Washington Battalion)  1937 July.
2 Interview with Marty Hourihan (Commander of the Lincoln Battalion from March 9 to July 4), 1937 August 26.
3 Interview with John Cookson, 1937 September 26.
4 Personal Interviews with a Volunteer, undated.
5 Sketch for a Journal, 1937.
6 International Brigades Historical Commissar, 1937 October 11.
7 Appointment Letter and Meeting Minutes, 1937 March 10.
8 Commisariat instructions/audits, Memo dated 1938 March 3; Check dated 1938 April 15.
9 Commisariat pamphlet, undated.
10 Political Commissars of the Spanish People's Army, 1937 July 27.
11 Drawings, undated.
12 The Work of the Republic in Elementary Teaching Since July 1938 until 30th June 1938, 1938.
13 The Volunteer for Liberty, undated.
14 The Volunteer for Liberty, multiple dates.
15 Chronology of the War in Spain (part 1), 1935 December 9 to 1937 January 14.
16 Chronology of the War in Spain (part 2), 1937 January 14 to 1937 December 11.
17 Chronology of the War in Spain (part 3), 1937 December 11 to 1938 July 28.
18 New Bulletin of the International Brigades, No. 250, 1937 September 14.
Subseries B: Propaganda
Soviet propaganda such as leaflets and stamps.
Box Folder
1 19 Postage stamps, 1937.
20 Postcards, undated.
21 Postcards, undated.
22 Postcards, undated.
23 Postcards, undated.
24 Postcards, undated.
25 Propaganda Cartoons (Estudios de Frenologia; El Generalisimo), undated.
26 Propaganda Leaflets, undated.
Subseries C: Photographs
Photographs of the Spanish Civil War.
Box Folder
1 27 Larger photographs and negatives of the Spanish Civil War. 
Box Folder
2 all Over 250 photos taken of the Spanish Civil War. 

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Series 2: The XVth International Brigade Records
A collective history of the Brigade told through personal narratives, creative writings and drawings, correspondence and military records. Also included are the histories and nationalities of those who fought.
Subseries A: The XVth International Brigade Records
Records pertaining to the XVth International Brigade
Box Folder
3 27 XVth International Brigades - Letters to and from volunteers, 1937 January 12; 1937 May 24.
28 XVth International Brigades - General Correspondence, multiple dates.
29 The XVth International Brigade - History of American Volunteers in Spain, undated.
30 Rosters - XVth International Brigade, undated.
31 Rosters - XVth International Brigade, undated.
32 Rosters - British Battalion, undated.
33 History of American Volunteers in Spain, 1937 August 22.
34 Canadians fighting in Spain, undated.
35 Cubans fighting in Spain, undated.
36 Cubans fighting in Spain, undated.
37 Biographies, undated.
38 Biographies, undated.
39 Biographies, undated.
40 Biographies, undated.
41 Personal Narratives - Signed, undated.
42 Personal Narratives, undated.
43 Personal Narratives, undated.
44 Personal Narratives, undated.
45 Poems, [1937].
46 Military Records - Orders, Memos and Reports, undated.
47 Military Records - Orders, Memos and Reports, multiple dates.
48 Maps, undated.
49 Military Records - Medical Services, undated.
50 Military Records - Medical Services, 1937 December 23 to 1970 January 28.
51 Military Records - Medical Services, multiple dates.
52 Military Records - Medical Services, undated.
53 Military Records - Medical Services, undated.
54 Military Records - Medical Services, 1937 May 11.
Subseries B: Abraham Lincoln Battalion
Records pertaining to the Abraham Lincoln Battalion.
Box Folder
4 55 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - History of the Battalion, 1937 June 16.
56 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - History of the Battalion, 1939 January 26.
57 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - History of the Battalion, multiple dates.
58 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - History of the Battalion, multiple dates.
59 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - History of the Battalion, 1940 April 4; 1940 April 26.
60 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - History of the Battalion, multiple dates.
61 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - Chronicle, undated.
62 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - Personal Narratives, multiple dates.
63 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - Trial of Comrade Wattis, undated.
64 Abraham Lincoln Battalion - Trial of Comrade Wattis, multiple dates.
Subseries C: George Washington Battalion
Records pertaining to the George Washington Battalion.
Box Folder
4 65 George Washington Battalion - Chronological History, undated.
66 George Washington Battalion - Chronological History, 1937 March 18.
Subseries D: MacKenzie - Papineau Battalion
Records pertaining to the MacKenzie - Papineau Battalion.
Box Folder
4 67 Fragments from a historical account of the Mackenzie-Paineau Battalion, undated.
68 Four indivudual documents highlighting the exerpience within the Mackenzie - Papineau battalion, undated.
Subseries E: The Anti-Tank Battery of the XVth International Brigade
Records pertaining to the Anti-Tank Battery of the XVth International Brigade.
Box Folder
4 69 Anti-Tank Battery of the XVth International Brigade, undated.

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Series 3: Sandor Voros Personal Papers
Contains wartime personal correspondence with Myrtle, Voros' girlfriend whome he married after the war.Also contains correspondence with military personal, Political Commissars and scholars.Also contains photographs, propaganda and a collection of correspondence from Robert Gladnick after the war.
Subseries A: Myrtle
A collection of personal letters to and from Myrtle, Voros's girlfriend.
Box Folder
5 70 Voros, S. to Myrtle, 1937 August 11 to 1938 December 27.
71 Voros, S. to Myrtle, multiple dates.
72 Voros, S. to Myrtle, 1937 January 3 to 1938 May 20.
73 Voros, S. to Myrtle, multiple dates.
Subseries B: Other
A collection of personal papers to and from friends at home and comrades within the communist party.
Box Folder
5 74 Simon, J.L. to Miss Day, 11, November.
75 Gottshall, M. to Prago, A., 1937 October 17.
76 Virginia to Lee R.; Gerald L.K. Smith to Townsend Club Convention; Cohn, Harold Dr. to Voros, S., multiple dates.
77 Letters to Voros, multiple dates.
78 Letters to Voros, multiple dates.
79 Letters to Voros, multiple dates.
80 Mullo, V. to Voros, S, undated.
81 Voros, S. to Piquemal, J., 3, July.
82 Haldane, 1937 December 25.
83 Lincoln Battalion to Mooney, T., 1937 June 29.
84 Military to Voros, multiple dates.
85 Toohey, P. to Barney, 1937 May 5.
86 Raven, B. to Eugene, Teddy and Stanley, 1937 June 20.
87 Scranton Confession 1935 May 20.
88 Cleveland Chamber of Commerce Committee on Subversive Activities, 1935 January 21.
Subseries C: Writings
Sandor Voros's original plays including first drafts with marginalia.
Box Folder
5 89 American Newspaper Article, undated.
90 Character Study of Budenz, undated.
91 Gamma pt. 1, undated.
92 Gamma pt. 2, undated.
93 Gamma pt. 3, undated.
94 Gamma pt. 4, undated.
Box Folder
6 95 American Commissar - Copyread Pages of 1st Draft pt. 1, undated.
96 American Commissar - Copyread Pages of 1st Draft pt. 2, undated.
97 American Commissar - First Rough Draft (incomplete) pt. 1, undated.
98 American Commissar - First Rough Draft (incomplete) pt. 2, undated.
99 May Days, [1938] May 1.
100 Behind the Lines, 1939 January 30.
101 Spanish Diary, 1939 April.
Subseries D: Gladnick Papers
A collection of corrsepondence between Robert Gladnick and various researchers.
Box Folder
7 102 American Communists and Sympathizers who Fought for Loyalist Spain. 1939 January 14.
103 Cigarette Etiquette, undated.
104 Gladnick Letter, 1967 Novmber 1967.
105 Gladnick Paper, 1954.
106 Gladnick Letter, 1967 January 6.
107 Gladnick Letter, 1967 November 28.
108 Gladnick Letter, 1967 December 4.
109 Gladnick Letter, 1968 February 4.
110 Gladnick Letter, 1967 November 24.
111 Gladnick Letter, undated.
112 Gladnick Letter, 1965 September.
113 Gladnick Letter, 1965 September.
114 Gladnick Letter, 1965 October 1.
115 Gladnick Letter, 1965 October 4.
116 Gladnick Letter, 1965 October 7.
117 Gladnick Letter, undated.
118 Gladnick Writing, 1966 Summer.
119 Gladnick Notes, undated.
120 Letterhead, undated.
121 Gladnick Letter, 1970 April 29.
122 Gladnick Writing, undated.

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